The Westminster Assembly & Instrumental Music In Public Worship

Instrumental Music in Public Worship: History Surrounding the Westminster Assembly

FROM: “INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN THE PUBLIC WORSHIP OF THE CHURCH”

By John L. Girardeau (Still Waters Revival Books, [1888] 2000), pp. 132, 133.

Before the Westminster Assembly of Divines undertook the office of preparing a Directory of Worship, the Parliament had authoritatively adopted measures looking to the removal of organs, along with other remains of Popery, from the churches of England. On the 20th of May, 1644, the commissioners from Scotland wrote to the General Assembly of their church and made the following statement among others: “We cannot but admire the good hand of God in the great things done here already, particularly that the covenant, the foundation of the whole work, is taken, Prelacy and the whole train thereof extirpated, the service-book in many places forsaken, plain and powerful preaching set up, many colleges in Cambridge provided with such ministers as are most zealous of the best reformation, altars removed, the communion in some places given at the table with sitting, THE GREAT ORGANS AT PAUL’S AND PETER’S IN WESTMINSTER TAKEN DOWN (emphasis added), images and many other monuments of idolatry defaced and abolished, the Chapel Royal at Whitehall purged and reformed; and all by authority, in a quiet manner, at noon-day, without tumult.”1 So thorough was the work of removing organs that the “Encyclopaedia Britannica” says that “at the Revolution most of the organs in England had been destroyed.”2

When, therefore, the Assembly addressed itself to the task of framing a Directory for Worship, it found itself confronted by a condition of the churches of Great Britain in which the singing of psalms without instrumental accompaniment almost universally prevailed. In prescribing, consequently, the singing of psalms without making any allusion to the restoration of instrumental music, it must, in all fairness, be construed to specify the simple singing of praise as a part of public worship. The question, moreover, is settled by the consideration that had any debate occurred as to the propriety of allowing the use of instrumental music, the Scottish commissioners would have vehemently and uncompromisingly opposed that measure. But Lightfoot, who was a member of the Assembly, in his “Journal of its Proceedings”3 tells us: “This morning we fell upon the Directory for singing of psalms; and, in a short time, we finished it.” He says that the only point upon which the Scottish commissioners had some discussion was the reading of the Psalms line by line.

ENDNOTES:

1. Girardeau cites this quotation from the Acts of Assembly of the Church of Scotland, 1644.

2. Girardeau cites Art., Organ.

3. Girardeau cites Works, Vol. xiii., pp. 343, 344; London, 1825.

For information about the Puritans, including free and discounted Puritan books, Puritan MP3s, Puritan digital downloads, and Puritan videos, as well as the Puritan Hard Drive, please visit Still Waters Revival Books at .

Five Most Awesome 70’s Singers

Some of the most memorable artists of that time are Stevie Wonder, Elton John, Diana Ross, Carly Simon, and hard rock star Van Halen. These singers made the 70’s an important era in the music industry where younger and newer singers look for inspiration. Because of this, modern singers are able to bring in fresh music as inspired by 70’s artists. All of these artists have albums where you can download free music MP3s and iPods.

Best Male Performers

Sir Elton John was catapulted to fame in the 70’s and is still famous until today. He is known around the world to write his own songs. He is known to be one of the greatest English artists of all time and extended his popularity all throughout the United States. Elton John has 6 Grammy awards under his belt and has sold more than 250 million copies of his albums throughout the world. Go to websites to download free music. He has been knighted by none other than Queen Elizabeth for his significant contributions to the music industry and became a Rock and Roll Hall of Famer in 1994. He continues to tour both the United States and Europe.

Another great singer of that era was Stevie Wonder. Stevie Wonder created great music although he lost his sight after he was born. Stevie Wonder created great music and has 22 Grammies won throughout his entire career and he was one of the five “All Time Top Artists” by Billboard Magazine. On the other hand, Van Halen who entertained the world in a different genre became successful with songs like “Dance the Night Away” and “Runnin like the Devil”.

Top Female Performers of the 70’s

In the case of female singers, Carly Simon is truly the best. She wrote many of the most sought after songs during the seventies. Carly’s popular hit songs included “You’re so Vain” and “Nobody Does it Better”. It is worth having, you can download free music MP3. Carly Simon was sworn in the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1994.

Diana Ross is another great woman singer. She became Female Entertainer of the Century by Billboard Magazine. Her popular hit “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough” is still being played in today’s air waves which can be found on websites to download free music. Diana Ross ventured into film and the theater beginning in the eighties. The seventies was a special era of free love and rebellion. All of these advocacies went on through the creation of great music.

Digital Pressure Gauge And Its Relevance To Pressure Gauge Instrument Industry

The digital pressure gauge is in huge demand recently as it can be used in numerous applications. This includes test and measurement to permanent mount process applications in a variety of industry sectors. Let us handle its function in some of the respective sectors one by one.
In Refineries: In refineries, the digital pressure gauge is ideal instrument to measure temperature as in these areas there are wide variations in ambient temperatures. It can even deal with issues like corrosive atmospheres, corrosive media, pressure pulsation, and vibration.
Food processing: Digital pressure gauge is also very important in the food processing industry, as it helps in finding the right pressure for food preservation. This is specially helpful in food canning, to prevent high risk of food borne illnesses.
Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries: the digital pressure gauge is used in sanitary fluid process applications in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. These industries depend upon the variation of the flow and are necessary to be indicated or controlled. Hence, the need of digital pressure gauge in these industries.
HVAC: Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning or in short HVAC system help to maintain good indoor air quality through adequate ventilation with filtration and provide thermal comfort. Here too, the digital pressure gauge comes handy to check the pressure which is essential for maintenance of filters.
Semiconductor:

In the semiconductor industry, a digital pressure gauge display outstanding performance even under in-conducive atmosphere like measuring highly-corrosive fluid and also in a corrosive atmosphere. It is also suitable for application even in fluids of a high degree of purity that includes semiconductor process.
Conclusion:

The digital pressure gauge is indeed a very important instrument for measuring pressure in all industry sectors. Hence, it is very essential that you get the very best when it comes to ordering one for yourself. Try buying online, for all smart buyers shop online to save time and money.

Searching For A Singer In Kolkata

Kolkata is the hub of art and culture of the east. It is renowned in the field of song ,art and its mix of different cultures. If you want to earn a name as a singer in Kolkata, then this is the place to be. In the field of theatre, art, song , dance , Kolkata embraces every person. If you are keen towards becoming a classical singer in Kolkata, then one must enroll to a reputed school or college where the education is imparted. There are also special colleges affiliated with the government where a person can earn a degree for themselves.

There are a lot of classical singer in Kolkata who are well versed with the knowledge of taal and ragas and the necessary notations. But one cannot learn to sing theoretically unless and until he or she has a melodious voice with its own unique style of singing. The various notes need to be learnt if one wants to be a singer. Classical songs or ragas are mainly practiced in the mornings and in a fresh mind. Songs are mere writings on a paper which is then adorned by the sweet voice of the singer which brings in life to the song. The vital factors required for a singer is to understand the meaning of the song and then embrace it with emotion to make it soulful.

A budding singer in Kolkata must listen to a lot of music from the old and famous artists in the field of music which helps in upgrading ones taste for good music. As the old saying goes practice makes a man perfect is aptly right for this factor. The more you practice regularly, the more you build you skills to learn and enrich. Every raga or gharana in classical music has its own unique style. One has to adapt to the basic features of classical songs and beautify them with his or her own sweet voice. A singer has to have ones own gayaki or style of performance to earn a name. He or she should be skilled in thumri, tappa, dadra, khayal and in different gharanas. Thumri is identified as the romantic facet of Hindustani classical music and is less formal than khayal. Variation of emotions plays a major role in singing thumri.

To become a singer in Kolkata one must work hard to be popular. One should attend various shows and stage performances to become a good singer. It helps one to make mistakes and analyze thereafter. Audience is the best critic and only time will tell whether one has succeeded in performing the song. The more you practice, the more efficient you become. The various seminars and musical functions give you an insight to the latest performing artist and their music. Appreciation by the older people in the field of culture is well acclaimed and regarded as an honour.

Scream Audio Singers

with small work. So very good is his overall performance which the audience feels his soreness whilst he attempts to mask it, for the stage that 1 moviegoer with the screening I attended yelled an obscenity to Hoover on Tolson’s behalf. DiCaprio and Hammer’s chemistry, despite dangerously teetering into octogenarian caricature at times, is so spot on believable it draws one particular in.This sequence of acting vignettes great in an anthology movie. Nonetheless, these parts don’t make “J. Edgar” a cohesively satisfying entire. It really is a strange instance in which the multiplication qualified prospects to your quotient. “J. Edgar” doesn’t know very well what it desires to get. Such as the movie alone, I am torn. It truly is likable but not participating. It in some way sterilizes a subject that needs to be rife with intrigue and titillation. Its a movie that seems to go considerably for a longer time than it really should but provides the audience very small to ruminate on. As participating as it is at times, “J. Edgar” as being a film is as medical a dissertation as being a chilly case file and equally as unsatisfying. Paul Anthony Llossas is actually a author who hosts “American Culture Critic”, his blog site about cultural tendencies with a give attention to common tradition. He is a summa cum laude, Phi Beta Kappan graduate. Follow his blog at . Scream Audio Singers A scream songs singer walks into your voice studio asking for support. Now considering you have spent the final twenty years imploring singers to not scream, what does one do? Even though it might be tempting copy car keys to suggest for your hefty metallic screamer which they just halt screaming, your phrases would most likely fall on deaf (quite quite def) ears.Musical tastes have advanced more than the millennia starting up with caveman growls ascending towards the exquisite classical audio on the nineteenth century and again close to to screams and growls on the conclude on the twentieth century. This pretty a lot puts scream songs groups with the

Who All Need To Buy Laboratory Instruments-t. D. Group

Laboratory Instruments that are required for various tests and researches are demanded by different sorts of Laboratories. The manufacturers of the laboratory instruments design or manufacture laboratory instruments for various applications. The buyers need to be careful that they buy according to their requirement from reliable Laboratory Instrument Manufacturer, Exporter or Supplier in the industry.

There are various types of laboratories that require different types of Laboratory Instruments. Some of the types of Laboratories are:

Educational Institutes Laboratories

Various laboratories like biology, physics, botany, chemistry and others in various schools, colleges and other educational institutes are equipped with laboratory instruments to provide practical education to the students. Various testing equipment like test tubes, beakers, jars, heating apparatus, thermometers, scientific measuring instruments, and other are required in the Educational Institutes Laboratories.

Clinical Setups Laboratories

Hospitals and various clinics and laboratories requires high quality laboratory instruments and equipment to collect samples like , urine samples, saliva samples, blood samples, etc. and diagnose the illness. Other than such equipment, the laboratories are also equipped with advanced machines such as ultrasound machines, X-Ray machines, etc.

Laboratories For Crime Investigation

To investigate a crime, a well-equipped laboratory facility is required to carry out various tasks to solve the criminal cases. Forensic laboratories need to be outfitted with Finger printing machines, scanning machines, etc. For the extreme accuracy in getting accurate results, it is necessary to buy high quality machines from reliable manufacturers.

Industrial Laboratories

To test the production and construction of various products, many industries are equipped with testing laboratories, where they can keep a check on the quality of the manufactured products. It should be ensured that the buyers get hold of the products that are made as per the standards and offer highly accurate results.

Scientific Laboratories

The Scientific Laboratories where all sorts of innovations and researches are done need advanced equipment and tools. Various equipment like Electroscope, Microscopes, Gravimeter, Spectrometer, Calorimeter, Dynamometer, Ammeter, Voltmeter, etc. are required to conduct various researches.

The buyers should make sure that the equipment they are buying is apt for their requirement and is made as per the industry standards. The buyers should buy the required laboratory instruments from the trusted Manufacturer or Supplier. For easily comparing the quality, features and prices of the required laboratory instruments, the buyers can go through various online portals & websites and find for themselves a good deal.

Singer for Hire – Tips for Choosing the right Singer-00-6352

When you start to look for a Singer for Hire the choice available is mind boggling. How do you choose the right singer for you?

The first question is what type of singer do you want to hire? You may have seen a singer previously and if youre lucky be able to find their phone number just when you need it. Or you may not be able to find their contact details and need to start a search afresh.

Do you want an all rounder with a wide repertoire for a wedding or a Soul Singer or maybe a Rat Pack Singer or even an Opera Singer?

Once you have decided the type of singer you would like, you will need to start sifting through websites, videos or song samples; to see who you like best. Maybe you will have to wait for CDs through the post or for an e mail with song samples attached.

Next comes the singers repertoire, is it extensive or limited, can you choose some of the songs they sing, will they provide lighting and equipment, how long will they sing, what is their fee and are they available? Will they sound as good live as on their song samples, are they reliable, can they be contacted easily or must you wait several days or weeks?

This type of selection process will need to be repeated for each singer you consider and without specialist working knowledge of individual singers can be daunting.

Alternatively, a reputable Entertainment Agency can either locate a particular singer or help you choose the right singer at an affordable cost.

They will have first hand knowledge of many singers, their professional experience, talent, vocal range, repertoire and reputation. They will have helped many Clients before you to choose the right singer and know how to get the best service from them.

A reputable Entertainment Agency will make the whole process a piece of cake. They will have a professional website with a good selection of singers to choose from, complete with song samples, repertoires, profiles, photographs and be able to answer any questions you may have.

The Fee and availability of your chosen singer can easily be provided by phone or e mail and the necessary contract issued so that you can relax with confidence.

All that remains is for you to enjoy your party or event.

How To Find Singer Sewing Machine Parts

If you own a Singer sewing machine, you know how they can be reliable. But like everything else, you can find that from time to time, parts Singer sewing machine wear out and need replacement. Some information about the parts can be replaced and how to find the ones you need.

To ensure that you are performing maintenance on the computer. This can keep it to top condition and can give you a heads up, if any part will need repair soon. You can clean the machine to get rid of any dust or pieces of wire, who built the engine or in an area where Polish is suitable. The right engine oil can also keep it running well and to prevent overheating or malfunctioning.

There are many websites and dealers who can offer you a Singer sewing machine parts your machine needs. This may include specialized foot, bobbins, bobbin winders and cases or standing. They may also include some of the items you’ll need to replace in case of failure or unserviceable.

One point that you are, replace a fairly regular basis is the needle. They can break at the seam, and you may also need to change hands depending on the type of fabric you use. It may be a good idea to have a supply of these items handy if one breaks while you are using, you can simply change the needle and continue working.

Another part that may be necessary to replace the bulb. He turns and gives you the opportunity to see what is working with more clarity. They are often very specialized, you may need to find a dealer who can provide the bulbs you need.

You can often do the routine maintenance yourself and replace some of the most fundamental. But if there are more complex repairs, or you need to replace some of the most intimate parts, you may need to send your machine off for routine maintenance. If you do, there are some things you want to make sure.

The first is that the coach has experience working for Singer machines and the second is the fact that they are using the correct components. The last thing you want to do is find that your system is irreversibly damaged, because the wrong parts are used.

You can find technicians and parts in the phone book, go online or talk to the dealer who sold his first machine. When buying, you will be able to get the best deals and maintain a steady supply of items you need. You want to make sure you know the specific model number of your machine, singer sewing machine specific parts you need. This ensures you do not accidentally buy the wrong and eventually cause damage to start sewing.

Famous Indian Contemporary Artist New Style Of Painting The Canvas

Indian art is of great essential significance in harmony to its civilization and legacy.
Art is a mixture of different types and styles; it modifies its phases, as the paint brush comes in the hands of diverse painters belonging to wide areas in world, having different background, sense of style.
In the present time the modern and figurative art form is of high demand not only in India but also in foreign countries. Modern form of painting is the outcome of the creativeness plus experimentation that the stalwarts of art have started.

Indian contemporary Art introduced in 21st century is a wide-range art. It ranges and has made his mark from the exclusive business empires offices, royal classes, to the houses of the middle-class art lovers. Indian art can be categorized variedly based on many criteria, one of them is medium. In which the artist is classified as oil painting artist, acrylic painting artist, water color painters and many more.
But this should not be the main criterion, as in 21st century painting artist do not work on any single pattern, they have a versatility in them to experiment new shades altogether.
The other way in which artists are classifieds is the place to which they belong i.e. their origin.
On the other hand most of the artists keep on moving from one place to another. They do not do not append their artwork with any typical school of art.

Indian contemporary artists take their insight from a mixture of sources and styles; Indian Artwork has still maintains its separate style and flavor. It has the capacity to merge the new style of art in it.
Indian contemporary art has won applause from all over the world. An unbelievable variety and originality is present in the Indian art. The contemporary Indian art is an ideal intermingle of Indian culture, history, religious beliefs, philosophy and diversity. This art form is day by day becoming more popular and famous all over the world. It has a great demand in the art market.

India has many famous contemporary artist added to its list. Their style of painting is a much of high class superiority, for the upper class people. Its a smooth, shinny; glossy style showcasing the wide range of variety. In this growing contemporary style modern materials are also used to give it a new edge. Natural fabric material like wool, cotton, silk, linen is used. These contemporary artist has the art to impress you with there brilliance and imaginative values.

Sohan Jakhar, a Famous Indian contemporary Artist from Jaipur focused on traditional style of painting, despite dealing with contemporary subjects like sports and public transports, his paintings carry a flavor that exemplifies the rich Rajasthan heritage. His art is a visual projection of stimulated memories from part and present.

Selling Musical Instruments

The old business model for selling musical instruments is being shattered, thanks in large part to the Internet and the large retail chains.

The opening of many online stores selling musical instruments is good news to music lovers as you can now better compare prices as well as look at customer reviews.

Here are a few examples of online stores selling musical instruments:-

Music, formerly known as Brasswind and Percussion Trading is currently one of the popular stores that retails musical scores, instruments and accessories to wind bands ranging from primary schools to professional ones.

Alamo Music Center, a store selling musical instruments, is the site for viewing custom-made instruments of Marclay’s design: a drum set that has been altered with cymbals and drums positioned at heights corresponding to their tonal qualities and a customized 12-foot long accordion.

A good music instrument store will offer deals on the hottest music gear. Music123 is one such store that has a wide selection of musical instruments and musical equipment.

Craft Central, is a site that contains information about musical instruments and other related products. Products include wind instruments, keyboard instruments, musical accessories, amplifiers, cases, DJ equipment, guitars, electric guitars, microphones, percussion instruments such as drums, snare drums, string instruments and much more. Over 25 different manufacturers among these products. The site has over 700 different products currently available.

As an alternative to selling musical instruments as an employee of a business, you may want to consider starting a business of your own.

You will find that there are good profit margins selling musical instruments and you would be making money selling something you know and love.

Retailing musical instruments can be a great business venture for the musically inclined entrepreneur who’s seeking a way to capitalize on their skills and interests. To be successful in a musical instrument business, you will need to do your research on the following – competitors, wholesale suppliers and distributors, business location, source of funding, product delivery methods, business policies such as refunds, warranties just to name a few.

Ideally, this type of specialty retailing is best suited to a retail storefront. However, for the financially challenged entrepreneur, the business could begin on a part-time basis from home; as a joint venture with a like-minded retailer, such as a CD shop; or online.

To supplement your income from selling musical instruments, there are complementary ways to do this by offering instrument repairs, classes, rentals, and sales of related products such as sheet music. Also, be sure to establish relationships with schools, music teachers, associations and clubs in the community. This can be a fantastic way to promote your business, products and services quickly as word-of-mouth advertising and referrals really work.